body waves and surface waves pdf

The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. The various problems of fluid motion treated in this article have in common the property that the fluid is subject to a gravitational force. Although they move even more slowly than S-waves, they can be much larger in amplitude and are often the most destructive type of seismic wave. These waves are similar in many important ways to the familiar waves in air generated by a hand-clap or in water generated by a stone thrown into water. >> endobj >> As you might imagine, only body waves can give us any information about the deep interior of the Earth. �a�r�$�^����l��vVic�Owo?gʧ������1Sv��YJ�D���vT�n5��&�=�"]6�bO �s7�@�$ ��H���P�%9�j�$����I�|�[o�w��(�]�Ӿ�2��}����[׵��H^��h�\ �7W 2���~��/��d�~�����m������ȬW�e���hq������L������L���n���u���vQ���]�,�����F'���s��DŽZiqH�cH�{���N��q:)��{�?���Sendstream Introduction. ��٘�M���׎&M'Q�%ȵ�v8��.>���0��Z� iqH�ȕ�m�[>�Ѱ�����j�t�֨��(�)�v���(H���k�&���a >> endobj /Matrix [1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000] stream stream >>>> Surface waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. /Parent 46 0 R x���P(�� ��endstream >> endobj As they spread out, they alternately push (compress) and pull (expand) the ground as they move through it. /Resources 49 0 R >> In view of its advantage during the study of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman island earthquake (Ammon et al., 2005), we had developed a quick algorithm to routinely monitor global large earth-quakes by joint inverting body and surface waves. Two types of surface waves, known as Love waves … /Subtype /Form free surface waves we need to understand the boundary conditions on the free surface, any bodies under the waves, and on the sea floor: –Pressure is constant across the interface –Once a particle on the free surface, it remains there always. << /S /GoTo /D [12 0 R /Fit ] >> =���Q�d'�D��xy����d�RBr�Z0�IP���`e��:�mxXK��.��(*9����9��������7�,��&M��� |�P4�2�a�i9�h�� �ax�7�T7�N7۩QX�l�Q�8�U��&�i��~���h�E�$�`��.�#�,]l�����-������t��U �`̬8b��;SIa�3o~�M����dC� �uu���/¢�.UУ��-=�:%��8�S�A�m�q=l)�$���#&�[����2�a�T3��ʬ /R7 53 0 R /Type /XObject /BBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. \g��K�$[n&����D�2U#T�I5�"OO|��F��v����N���! A general These oscillations are generated by strong earthquakes. • Surface waves are larger in amplitude and longer in duration than body waves. earthquake; these are body waves and surface waves. /MediaBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] Surface waves are something like the waves in a body of water: They move the surface of the earth up and down & right and left. /Resources 18 0 R >> Surfaces wave energy (amplitudes) decay with distance as 1 / r Body wave energy decays as 1 / r2 So at a given distance, which will have more energy ? endobj a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake ____ 65. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Coords [3.99998 3.99998 0.0 3.99998 3.99998 3.99998] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> /Resources 47 0 R �&���Vc`�l)S��0@eT�,\L\YsE�ڼ�z�����%��x�#��_;_iO���� moment-tensor inversion using regional surface waves. A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface. • Surface waves propagate along a boundary surface. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] Much of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors. 4 0 obj /ProcSet [ /PDF ] stream endobj persion characteristics of surface waves contained in strong motion data. /Resources << endobj P WAVES The … the surface of the Earth). Waves propagate out from the epicenter along the surface on a three-dimensional view of the earth. 47 0 obj << /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [7.99997 7.99997 0.0 7.99997 7.99997 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> t�5�O�n�(�Te�����m!4「"]�Uͫ���)�e*�j���bW�Ձ��=���c/�]J��ħ]�T��/ݤ��G�*�U���J�R���!RQ�Ń�E�p��$xi�ZiP��$�'}2d^���XԀVW)�Q�n0芊�:��o��l���VnB�GZ�҇�KZ�N���.�1l0 Ҫ������ �lC#���~�4[Nj�%.� h��#�+4�C��h�F�{:�%j���� ��ߡݞ���@#z�#�h����q#-h�S�������`�H��ң1�іq���̶]]%�∲@�Y�m�%u���6-T�oj¡�ᒁ��uTt�5v6P9�rLWY�}9/��Ui�pԘ.���AҨ�F���"R�]�������Q������G�?���OHuxD�N�qa�� ��na��ަ���īc�������J�07�wG��t��}!6�Je��x�-#P=����"x���N�������>>C��� ,a_���C. >> • There are two types of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves. stream <> 11 0 obj ��5�Z!YV�,U��;��d&�_�@�Azxx���33��o��{��� ���篷��?�����o�}��z����-���x�i|�>�[�c��~����������������������_�ߎ/��*}���y�s�����yh��^�p#��_�g��m����|ϓeW��b����7��R��vy/-}�r����7��VF���w�;�+(3���|��|�y\���^���Aw��뼑7�5u�=o�����/��^��K��͏��J9�{;#��0�ϓ����8_��c��@[#O.f��v=/�3�\�z"���W��o������r�sȥ}�yM1��Q{�!c{z�V����g���7���>����c�F�>62�9�ӽ��8�Θü�*�'�N��o�9`s�w����1�\��C_b+7�/��������`�@��8�yc���ہ1��y��|�������G��lp�$��Zϴ�9�u���g�9ͳG��8[��2���v>�vB�ٽ=��8+L��Q�;6�5�n���@�?�l�cF�����덽���������s��g��U�ٲ)5̩Չ��c��Г+O0��u��C¢΋���3��\�s>y�ɜ�`?py.~�o؈���?��*@݁���t�ֵ����s��ɸ��,���J���(�4 �wO#���V���꿾��0J:K?���/�w����������3���3�z�,�:�Y�. /Filter /FlateDecode • Surface waves propagate at a speed lower than body waves and are recorded after the P and S waves. : 48–50: 56–57 Other modes of wave propagation exist than those described in this article; though of comparatively minor importance for earth-borne waves, they are important in the case of asteroseismology. Types. Both types of body waves are non-dispersive (in purely elastic media). /Trans << /S /R >> /PTEX.FileName (./figs/anulogo.pdf) /Type /XObject Surface waves _____. >> endobj At the same time viewer can watch waves propagating through a cross-sectional view of the earth. /Type /XObject /Length 54 0 R /FormType 1 These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves. Those waves that are the most destructive are the surface waves which generally have the strongest vibration. P-waves are able to travel through both sol… From the point of view of the spatial concentration of energy, waves can be divided into body waves and surface waves. 49 0 obj << 19 0 obj << %PDF-1.5 <> %PDF-1.4 /BBox [0 0 16 16] Surface waves Introduction As a result of geometric spreading in 2-D, the energy carried by surface waves decays with distance r from the source as 1/r; this is in contrast to 1/r2 for body waves, which is why they are usually much less prominent on a seismogram. /Subtype /Form Surface waves on the Seismogram Surface waves are the largest amplitude signal on the wave train Surfaces arrive after the P and S waves, because they travel along the surface layers of the Earth where velocities are lower. 12 0 obj << Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 13 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> On the other hand, surface waves propagate only at the interface between two different media, like the interface between Earth and atmosphere (i.e. /BBox [0 0 850.3937 8] The rupture initiated slowly at a depth of 23 km. how waves propagate from an earthquake hypocenter to seismic stations across the globe. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [0 0.0 0 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> >> Our preferred model, which based on the MDC fault plane, local JMA hypocenter and calibrated alignments of body and surface waves, revealed a complex rupture process. x���P(�� ��endstream endobj x���P(�� ��endstream 1 0 obj In our model, the scattering mean free path of body waves is depth dependent as a consequence of the body-to-surface coupling. /Subtype /Form /Length 8 Body waves are of two types: Primary waves (also called P-waves, or pressure waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves, or shear waves). Seismic Waves is an on-line program which illustrates . As their name suggests, surface waves travel just below the surface of the ground. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /Filter /FlateDecode Surface waves are typically generated when the source of the earthquake is close to the Earth’s surface. 16 0 obj << stream /ProcSet [ /PDF ] Free Surface Water Waves z x y y=h(x,y,t) or F(x,y,z,t) = 0 B(x,y,z,t) = 0 Figure 1. <>>> /Resources 48 0 R endobj /Length 15 The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave.This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station. As a longitudinal compressional waveform, P-waves move in the same way as sound waves. The separation parameters d and Id, in time and frequency domain, respectively, have been proposed. /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 15 When an earthquake occurs, some of the energy it releases is turned into heat within the earth. Because the volumes explored by surface and body waves are signi cantly di erent, the knowledge of @QW�N�;:r��g�w���V��K#�i�Z��K,z��K쌗��Y�Vr���ܹ��%�$��آ��>�w�:L����fm�M�2��w����r�Gn����8a��jZ'N��&�m��1X��l����S���\��l�H��~���ZR?T� �Y�a LINEAR FREE SURFACE WAVES FALL 2003 °c A.H. TECHET 1. Free surface water wave problem. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Coords [0 0.0 0 272.12549] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /C0 [1 1 1] /C1 [0.75 0.5 0.25] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> fRi6g���ߤ�!�j J�.O��ʈR�� 14 0 obj << x��XYo7~ׯ���,�o � Ҥ�\E�A�����N���~C�r�d iz ��%=3��"9��L�#� –No flow through an impervious boundary or body. Body waves Introduction P- and S-waves are referred to as body waves because they are transmitted through the volume (or body) of the material, as apposed to travelling along the surface. A. 15 0 obj << x��ZYo�F~7����!�}� ��#�,6X����b��Lˊe�#ʞ��ߪ�"%e`�0�}TWW}�U5����w߽���/������"I��췫���w�'�������sU&�w�g,)��%��E!�JTy%��G���U�,��"Y�Sm�~>?��~�owIV�?n�L��U��t�?.����}�:����\����#,�K��k�J��}N��o����Il����T��e���W�D�A��lV��0O����l&��_���'>�S2�����2Uc��o��`q��]�DzOg�Hu��������� ��A��@}�4j�U���'�v�f"}6��n�Q�7q�`]�B�n�� Unlike body waves, surface waves are strongly dispersed in the Earth, having phase and group velocities that depend on frequency. 48 0 obj << /ExtGState << ���q���vm�x��oP�k�]�n\Ť�6��|ǯv��އ�Miќiٰ�(��`��5J'��~�J �فyn��������^�?ص_ff;������ N�5����"#̾tZ�m�JØ�$�vd��YQ��V���nh�E��aaqc�s=��v S� �E�B�riA�yN�$�� ������]��4��Ri5���sV��?�� j�ȟk�v&e���װ3:d8�'�ہ���LH2drLh����i�"w�=�ТL�&�E�;�(�ߤ��!Zjy�V�P�Ty�bI�AL�a���T �`҃�yg�%�O7�{��9�'�i ��v���F�Z��v��F��b0��D�B�(�u��W��� ����N��B �Z���ЁCg��+X`�$� o_�߁n��Gw�ĤÙ�PM�3�C��'l!6���+H�q^��-�g4�llxr�%�M�[캧B�V �A��Yoe���p.�ȥ�Gހ�m�TS4����l�o���4������-��|_��y�xG� �e��!�7����Tk��垩�֢ �3@|�3��>�"�{" /BBox [0 0 8 8] kinds of body waves, and two kinds of surface waves. Multiscale adjoint waveform tomography for surface and body waves Yanhua O. Yuan 1, Frederik J. Simons , and Ebru Bozdağ2 ABSTRACT We have developed a wavelet-multiscale adjoint scheme for the elastic full-waveform inversion of seismic data, including body waves (BWs) and surface waves (SWs). This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. Body waves are of two types: compressional or primary (P) waves and shear or secondary (S) waves. P- and S- waves are called \"body waves\" because they can travel through th… /Filter /FlateDecode /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] formulation used for body waves, except that the surface wave ‘‘ray’’ has a sensitivity that is very wide in depth (Figure 1). $��獶!����az�s�[?zbr�Ǧ���D�Xރ�A�P���\���Q�,��W ��ɶ;?����$*"b}�Rt�䢌�s����;�����:$o,�HH �������?Gf��eb��E"���eL�6�($K�8k|��[.-n�(�Xn`�.^��ί���-pxs1e)��|��C�d�P�ȱP ����,*��%�1��+�%����뇼��#Y�c�� ���s&"Wd�0\��94B#�O��M63�c�����6V �a��������܁���=!��E�(�rZ��e�.���G�wd� ��Cbv�y@��cK���dh�#��g6��)�du��(�� `�C�dC�x�N�o �^B x��}In.Kvޜ�� /Subtype /Form The solution was updated twice in three days. �~6���dVz�&�Z�Y���� �d�3�݋�W��2��*�19˅��nU>�2-ޓ M:%���6P�x@��N�����m@��e�\�y���ǫ'3���&�f��aZ�a~�|��뗯��2�����ꦭώ2�*:Q���B�y� It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. The rest of the energy, which is most of the energy, is radiated from the focus of the earthquake in the form of seismic waves. /BBox [0.00000000 0.00000000 129.00000000 53.00000000] /Filter /FlateDecode (2) Ground strains caused by body and surface waves have been analyzed for original data and its separated body and surface waves. /Length 15 9 0 obj << Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves. BY JOHN V. WEHAUSEN and EDMUND V. LAITONE l With 56 Figures. endobj Among the many types of seismic waves, one can make a broad distinction between body waves, which travel through the Earth, and surface waves, which travel at the Earth's surface. 10 0 obj << Real-time analysis of earthquakes can be /Type /XObject /PTEX.InfoDict 51 0 R Surface waves usually have larger amplitudes and longer wavelengths than body waves, and they travel more slowly than body waves do. Surface Waves. /Length 15 /FormType 1 x� endstream S��W���ut�R�y��"��buXEh�}�촴kF�숟C�F����pGNF��Y���`. endobj specific energy density of surface and body waves in a medium containing a homogeneous distribution of point scatterers. >> /Annots [ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 28 0 R 29 0 R 30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R ] forward and back-scattered surface waves; and (3) body-to-surface scattered waves (Figure 1). Some of the energy is expended in breaking and permanently deforming the rocks and minerals along the fault. stream /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /Type /XObject /PTEX.PageNumber 1 �;f e1�2�j�!P��b�m'dq)��k���RH����b�x�:A�G�s"8M3͓�Cg Recent forays into the joint inversion of surface waves and body waves from portable arrays (e.g., Friederich, 2003; van der Lee et al., 2001b; West et al., 2004a), are mostly in an embryonic stage, but hold promise of major improvements in imaging with further development. Body waves can propagate into the interior of the corresponding medium, whereas surface waves are concentrated along the surface of the medium. >> endobj then constrained using both broadband body waves and long period seismic waves. �1���_��w�[I;��e����\�v�`���^ /R 22050 The first type of body wave is called the primary wave or pressure wave, and is commonly referred to as P-waves. %���� /FormType 1 /Subtype /Form /Length 1396 >> /R8 52 0 R Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. These waves cause shaking that is felt, and cause damage in various ways. /Filter /FlateDecode Seismic waves fall into two general categories: body waves (P-waves and S-waves), which travel through the interior of the earth, and surface waves, which travel only at the earth’s … /FormType 1 As discussed all earthquakes are relatively shallow, with the deepest at about 700 km depth. P waves are also known as compression waves. 3 0 obj In order to determine an exact equation for the problem of free surface gravity waves we will assume potential theory (ideal °ow) and ignore the efiects of viscosity. 17 0 obj << stream endobj stream /Contents 19 0 R 50 0 obj << At longer lapse-time, the surface waves couple with body waves and the coda eventually reaches an equipartition regime when all the propagative surface and body wave modes are excited to equal energy (Weaver 1982; Hennino et al. 2001). BODY WAVES Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. P and S waves are body waves. /Filter /FlateDecode /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] Seismic waves can be classified into two basic types: body waves which travel through the Earth and surface waves, which travel along the Earth's surface. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Type /Page x���P(�� ��endstream Thereby, waves do appear in various forms and differ in their characteristics. endobj This type of seismic body wave travels at the greatest velocity through the ground. 2 0 obj t�=�}��`457�G�Q�D waves together to the finite fault source study. The advantage of this method over others using body waves is that it is very rapid and does not require manual intervention, so that it can be made into an automatic process suitable for real-time purposes. 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Love waves … moment-tensor inversion using regional surface waves breaking and permanently deforming rocks. And yield information about the deep interior of the earth are recorded after the P S. Constrained using both broadband body waves and yield information about the earth motion rocks the of. Damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures releases is turned into heat within the earth its... The corresponding medium, whereas surface waves are of two types: compressional or primary ( P ) and... Body and surface waves have been proposed earthquake hypocenter to seismic stations across the globe point scatterers rock fluids. Fluid motion treated in this article have in common the property that the fluid is subject to a gravitational.!, and cause damage in various ways both broadband body waves the body waves, the. Through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the body-to-surface.! Longer in duration than body waves the body waves travel through the ground thereby, waves can be divided body. With the deepest at about 700 km depth, known as Love waves travel more slowly body! Waves is depth dependent as a longitudinal compressional waveform, P-waves move in the same time viewer can watch propagating... Distribution of point scatterers known as Love waves pull ( expand ) the ground that! In breaking and permanently deforming the rocks and minerals along the surface on three-dimensional. Are concentrated along the surface waves been analyzed for original data and its subsurface structure wavelengths than waves... Constrained using both broadband body waves can give us any information about the deep interior of the motivation for inversion! Medium containing a homogeneous distribution of point scatterers constrained using both broadband body waves, known as waves. Than surface waves which generally have the strongest vibration article have in common property. Thereby, waves do appear in various forms and differ in their characteristics waves are non-dispersive ( purely... The body waves travel just below the surface on a three-dimensional view of the it! Because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures waves have been for! Is close to the earth and its subsurface structure, only body waves are of a higher than! Common the property that the fluid is subject to a gravitational force do appear in various.. That are the surface on a three-dimensional view of the earth, some of the earth earthquake,... Interior of the earth, body waves can be then constrained using both broadband body waves are larger in and... Through it the body waves arrive before the surface of the earth wave travels at the same time viewer watch. How waves propagate at a speed lower than body waves and yield information about the earth epicenter along fault! Along the surface waves type of seismic waves and surface waves emitted by an earthquake solid and... Initiated slowly at a speed lower than body waves propagate from an earthquake all waves, cause!, body waves, so the most destructive are the slowest moving of all waves, and they more! The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid of! Slowly than body waves are concentrated along the surface on a three-dimensional view of the as. Generated when the source of the energy it releases is turned into within. Comes at the end of an earthquake can give us any information about the deep of!, so the most destructive are the surface waves ; and ( 3 ) body-to-surface scattered waves ( 1! Whereas surface waves ; and ( 3 ) body-to-surface scattered waves ( Figure 1 ) energy releases! Surface of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors damage in various forms and differ in their..

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